In 24 BC Augustus, The Roman Emperor instituted a corps of "watchmen" to look out for fires. They developed a system that checked and prevented fires. At that time, most cities had men who would sound an alarm at the sign of fire. The main tool at that time was a bucket that was passed hand to hand to douse the fire.
An ax was another valuable firefighting tool. The ax was crucial in removing fuel that caused the spread of a fire and also created openings that would allow smoke and heat to escape a building. Hooks and ropes were also used to tear down buildings to prevent the spread of fire to another structure. Explosives were also used for this reason.
In 1666 London, there was a fire known as the "Great Fire of London." The insurance companies formed "fire brigades" that were groups of men working together to put our fires. In 1865, the government got involved and formed Londos Metropolitan Fire Brigade. In 1830, Scotland the first formal standards for the operation of a fire department were developed. They laid out the expectations for a successful fire department.
A major fire that took place in Boston in 1631 brought about the establishment of fire regulations. In 1648, fire wardens were appointed and thereby started the first public fire department in North America. Benjamin Franklin is credited with establishing one of America